According to Grant, there are three types of people in the world: givers, takers and matchers. Pretty much as the names would imply, takers take more than they give, and givers tend to be giving without expectation of reciprocity. Matchers are quid pro quo — they will give and take in equal measures. Then the question is: who has the most success in life and at work? It turns out that, in the short term, the givers can suffer enormously — it’s easy for them to give and for others to take advantage of them. But in the longer term, the givers win out in the end. Adam Grant has a lot of fun in this book following famous and not-so-famous givers and takers and showing how their styles contribute to their success and downfalls. Adam Grant himself is definitely a “giver”. (As one of my guest speakers in the Master of Applied Positive Psychology program, he ran “reciprocity circles” that showed givers do benefit — they create meaningful relationships and they are well-viewed in the workplace). The key is to give without expectation of anything coming back your way. Easy to say, but sometimes hard to do.