Musculoskeletal researcher Dr. Jack Callaghan has a low opinion of the public alarm surrounding sitting at work. \u201cIt\u2019s amazing what an impact the media has had on this. Ten years ago, nobody cared about sitting in the office, and now all of a sudden it\u2019s this massive thing,\u201d he says. When asked if sitting is bad for you, he concurs that the evidence points to that. \u201cWhere it starts to fall apart,\u201d he says, \u201cis where you divide out work sitting time and total sitting time. This \u2018sitting at work is killing you\u2019 thing \u2014 there\u2019s not a lot of evidence for that. It\u2019s more total sitting. It\u2019s more a lifestyle comment. Do you sit all day at work? Do you drive your car? Do you sit at home on the couch?\u201d Callaghan states that it\u2019s fine to sit for around 10 hours a day total and up to eight hours at work. The maximum time you should spend standing at work, however, is only four hours because standing too long is actually more detrimental to your health. The negative impacts of prolonged standing range from varicose veins to cardiovascular disease to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) like back pain. \u201cThe association of standing and negative MSD outcomes is far greater than the association of sitting and back pain for example \u2026 We don\u2019t want to just blindly substitute and have people standing all day,\u201d Callaghan says. He believes the healthiest strategy is to switch between sitting and standing for the pragmatic reason that if you want to reduce sitting you have to be doing something else. \u201cI think standing is a great office intervention, because it\u2019s an easy place to get people to change behaviour. It\u2019s hard to get people to stop going home and sitting on the couch and watching a movie: you have no power to intervene there. Work is an easy place to get people to change behaviours. Well, I shouldn\u2019t say \u2018easy.\u2019 It\u2019s not easy, but it\u2019s a more direct route to apply an intervention,\u201d he says. When it comes to how much time you should spend sitting versus standing, Callaghan suggests a one-to-one ratio for a number of reasons. For one, he advises aiming high because \u201cmost people won\u2019t get there.\u201d Additionally, based on ergonomic guidelines, you shouldn\u2019t be standing longer than four hours \u2014 a one-to-one ratio fits nicely into an eight-hour workday. A four-hour reduction in sitting also pushes you into a better health category. Finally, he states that based on the work they\u2019ve done in the lab investigating how long people can tolerate standing, people\u2019s tolerance also falls into that one-to-one ratio. Perhaps even more important, he tells us, is how you distribute those four hours. He suggests rotating every 15\u201320 minutes. If this seems crazy, he says that you can stand for longer periods, but that you should work up to it the same way you might train for a marathon, and avoid ever standing longer than 45 minutes at a stretch. For workplaces wanting to implement some sort of sit-to-stand program, he emphasizes that education is the key to success. If you plan to introduce sit-to-stand workstations, you have to train people how to properly use them. You also have to get people to buy in, telling them why you\u2019re doing it and what the benefits are. Then you must follow up, because if people are having problems they\u2019re going to stop using them.