There is a consistent finding among social scientists that women under-represent their accomplishments in circumstances where male peers promote their successes. Psychologists have spent countless hours measuring and validating this pattern but I am sure to most readers this raises the question: \u201cDo we really need scientific studies to confirm this finding?\u201d To most, this is a gender difference that is easily observed. However, my research has given insights into why this happens, the social circumstances that perpetuate the effect and the potential consequences. Let\u2019s start at the beginning. We raise young girls to be caring and compassionate. In contrast, young boys are generally taught the value of being determined and competitive. In adulthood, both men and women are penalized for behaving in ways that are not consistent with the expectations placed on their gender. As a result, when it comes to behaviours related to self-promotion, women perceive themselves to be in a \u201cdouble bind,\u201d confronted with a choice between two undesirable courses of action: sacrifice success or downplay their accomplishments to avoid being judged unfeminine or unlikeable. This tendency for women to under-represent their accomplishments to others is called the \u201cfeminine modesty\u201d effect. The phenomenon has been observed in both academic and career-relevant settings. Modesty has the potential to significantly limit the careers of women. Based on the common axiom of performance management, work that is not recognized is not compensated. Dr. Sara Mann from the University of Guelph and I investigated the effect of modesty among employees in a small manufacturing firm. In \u201cModesty versus self-promotion: A double edged sword for women in management,\u201d published in 2010 in the Journal of Management Development, we demonstrated that modesty has a relationship with income. Women high in modesty earn less than women low in modesty. They also earn less than their male peers. This makes sense and fits with what we would anticipate. Modesty does not serve women well when it limits their tendency to self-promote. However, the effect for men was surprising. Men who believe it is important to be modest earn larger incomes than their immodest peers. These findings give us helpful insights into the challenge of modesty. It also uncovers another potential reason for the pay discrepancy between male and female managers. It appears that while men are rewarded for holding modest values, women are penalized. By definition, modest people give credit to others for their accomplishments and request rewards for others. When women have trouble discussing their accomplishments and favour giving credit to others for achievements, the rewards are distributed to others. In contrast, when men believe that it is inappropriate to boast and instead give credit to others, they themselves share some of the credit. It could be that women and men with similar beliefs about being modest or humble enact this value using different behaviours. In other words, men who are modest will still self-promote, but are likely to do so in a way that is effective yet humble. Immodest men may appear boastful. In contrast, modest women might not be self-promoting at all, a true representation of the feminine modesty effect. What can we take away from this study? No one likes a braggart, whether male or female, but men have an advantage when it comes to self-promotion. Men need to ensure that they are maintaining some humility, while women must avoid under-representing their accomplishments. While self-promotion might be challenging for women, it is a skill we all need to hone in order to remain competitive in today\u2019s workforce.